A Dental Surgeon specialises in preventing, diagnosing and treating diseases, disorders and injuries of the mouth and jaws. They do this by:
· Providing preventive treatment such as scaling and cleaning
· Repairing teeth damaged by decay or trauma
· Treating diseases of the roots, gums and soft tissues of the mouth
· Managing malformation and misalignment of teeth and jaws by providing appropriate treatment
· Extraction of teeth.
Dermatology deals with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects.
A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.
Dermatologists treat patients of all ages, from babies and children to adolescents and adults. Although diseases of the skin are many and varied, Australian dermatologists spend much of their time treating diseases caused by exposure to the sun. These include skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
Other potential skin problems that are part and parcel of a typical dermatologist’s work are acne, eczema, skin infections, psoriasis, occupational dermatitis, hair and nail disorders, surveillance of moles and cosmetic problems of the skin.
EAR, NOSE AND THROAT SURGEON (OTOLARYNGOLOGIST)
An ENT diagnoses and provides medical/surgical therapy and/or prevention of:
· deformities, disorders and/or injuries
…of the ears, nose, sinuses, throat, respiratory and upper alimentary systems, face, jaw, and the other head and neck systems. Head and neck oncology, facial plastic/reconstructive surgery and the treatment of disorders of hearing and voice are fundamental areas of expertise. They are also specialists in industrial deafness assessments. Their expertise also includes the following:
· Trauma to the face – nasal bone, mandible, orbital and frontal bone
· Fractures, complex lacerations and soft tissue damage
· Otology – dizziness, hearing loss, mastoiditis, outer, inner and middle ear
· Inflammation and perforated ear drum.
General Surgeons specialise in preoperative, operative and postoperative management of complications of surgical conditions in the following areas:
· Alimentary tract
· Abdomen and Breast
· Skin and soft tissue
· Endocrine system
· Head and neck surgery
· Paediatric surgery
· Surgical critical care, and Surgical oncology
· Trauma and burns
· Vascular surgery
· Testicular disease, and Sexual dysfunction.
An independent physiotherapy consultant is a registered physiotherapist experienced in the assessment and treatment of workplace injuries.
They are appointed by a selection panel and provide independent peer review of physical treatment and an integral component of this review is consultation with the treating practitioner. Their role is to:
• Determine whether further physical treatment is considered reasonable and necessary
• Work with the treating therapist to reach agreement on future treatment content and duration that will achieve best outcomes for the injured worker
• Advise the treating therapist, the insurer, and the injured worker on the ongoing need for further treatment
• Control costs by recommending the cessation of service delivery that is not reasonably necessary, or provide recommendations for more appropriate treatment
• Assist practitioners, insurers and employers to better understand when and how much treatment is reasonably necessary.
Musculoskeletal medicine addresses pain in the muscles, bones, ligaments and joints. It involves the non-surgical treatment of varied conditions like back pain, neck pain, (both acute and chronic), trigger points, sciatic-type pain, pain associated with arthritis, whiplash injuries, sports injuries, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, disc and nerve pain.
Musculoskeletal physicians use various non-invasive therapies, taking a holistic approach to managing pain and dysfunction. Therapies used include spinal mobilisation and manipulation, exercise prescription, acupuncture and dry needling, as well as more invasive spinal injection techniques (prolotherapy, nerve blocks & epidural injections).
The peripheral joints such as the knee, hip and shoulder are also managed along similar lines emphasizing education and self management of all musculoskeletal conditions
A Neurologist specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of all types of disease or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles and autonomic nervous system. It also looks at the blood vessels that relate to these structures. A Neurologist specialises in the diagnosis and management of:
· disorders of nerve, muscle or neuromuscular junction, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, peripheral neuropathies
· various muscular dystrophies, congenital and acquired myopathies,
· inflammatory myopathies and
· neuromuscular transmission disorders.
Neuropsychology is concerned with the relationship between brain function and behaviour, and assesses changes that may arise from a form of brain dysfunction, including:
· Head injury and Concussion
· Neurological disease
· Cerebrovascular problems such as strokes or aneurysms
· Drug and alcohol related brain damage
· Learning disabilities and developmental delays
· Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
· Intellectual impairment
A Neurosurgeon encompasses the surgical and non surgical treatment of adult and paediatric patients. Diseases and conditions treated include:
· Neck injuries – whiplash and other injuries
· Spinal injuries – ruptured discs, sciatica, stenosis, trauma, low back pain, scoliosis
· Tumours of the spine, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
· Head trauma – brain haemorrhages, skull fractures
· Brain tumours
· Cerebral aneurysms, hemorrhagic stroke
· Neuropathies – carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy
· Traumatic injuries of peripheral nerves
· Malformations of the nervous system
An Occupational Physician provides a range of services relating to the health of workers and employers. They consider medical issues within the wider context of their psychosocial, industrial and motivational frameworks.
The specialty encompasses prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. It deals with health issues of:
· the individual worker
· populations of workers
· their interaction with their environment and
· the “health” of the employing organisation.
Ophthalmologists have the knowledge and professional skills needed to provide comprehensive eye and vision care, and are medically trained to diagnose, monitor and medically/surgically treat all ocular and visual disorders. This includes problems affecting the eye and its component structures, the eyelids, the orbit and the visual pathways.
Orthopaedics is devoted to the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of injuries and diseases of the body’s musculoskeletal system. Orthopaedic surgeons treat a variety of diseases and conditions, including:
· Arthritis and osteoporosis
· Joint reconstruction and replacement
· Fractures and dislocations
· Torn ligaments, sprains, and strains
· Tendon injuries, pulled muscles, and bursitis
· Ruptured discs, sciatica, low back pain, and scoliosis
· Knock knees, bow legs, bunions, and hammer toes
· Bone tumours, muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy
· Abnormalities of the fingers and toes and growth abnormalities.
This is the diagnosis and treatment of painful disorders. A physician who specialises in pain medicine provides a high level of care, either as a primary physician or consultant, for patients experiencing problems with acute, chronic or cancer pain in both hospital and ambulatory settings.
Pain Medicine is a multidisciplinary subspecialty and patient care needs may be coordinated with other specialists.
A Psychiatrist specialises in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of:
· mental, addictive and emotional disorders e.g. schizophrenia
· mood disorders
· anxiety disorders
· substance related disorders
· sexual/gender identity disorders and adjustment disorders.
Psychiatrists are able to understand the biologic, psychological and social components of illness.
Psychologists are specialists in the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of psychological and mental health problems.
A Psychologist who specialises in medico-legal assessments may assist a court or other fact finder in arriving at a just or correct decision. A Psychologist with expertise in medico-legal reporting may assist in a wide variety of civil matters. Civil matters include, but are not limited, to lawsuits or insurance claims where emotional suffering is part of the claim, determination of competency of an aged or ill person to make decisions, and a variety of other areas. Areas of expertise include:
· Organisational and Clinical Psychology
· Vocational Assessments
· Return to Work Programs
· Primary and secondary psychological injuries
· Psychometric and psychological testing.
A Rehabilitation Physician is concerned with diagnosing, evaluating, and treating patients with physical disabilities. Disabilities can arise from conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system including:
· neck and back pain
· sports injuries
· other painful conditions affecting the limbs.
Disabilities can result from neurological trauma or disease such as spinal cord injury, head injury or stroke.
RESPIRATORY (THORACIC) PHYSICIAN
A Respiratory Physician specialises in diseases of the lungs and respiratory system. They diagnose and treat:
· occupational and environmental diseases
· sleep disorders
· emphysema and other complex disorders of the lungs.
A Rheumatologist is a specialist physician who has expertise in diagnosing and treating diseases of the joints, muscles and bones. Sometimes the term rheumatic disease is used to describe this group of diseases. The more common rheumatic diseases include:
Joint disease: Arthritis Gout Spinal problems Osteoarthritis
Muscles and tendons: Fibromyalgia Polymyalgia rheumatica
Bone disease: Osteoporosis Paget’s disease
There are also a number of rarer rheumatic conditions which can affect other parts of the body including the skin, hair and internal organs. These include “lupus”, myositis, vasculitis and scleroderma.
A Physician with expertise in the diagnosis and management of clinical conditions that occur during sleep, that disturb sleep or that are affected by disturbances in the wake sleep cycle.
The Physician will be skilled in the analysis and interpretation of comprehensive polysomnography, well versed in emerging research and management of a sleep laboratory.
Urologists are surgeons who diagnose, treat and manage men, women and children with urological disorders.
The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, uretha, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis).
A Vascular Surgeon has expertise in the management of surgical disorders of the blood vessels, including the following conditions:
· Arterial diseases especially in Diabetics
· Ischemia - Limb, Mesenteric, Renal
· Extracranial cerebrovascular disease
· Venous disease.