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Active motion
            joint motion carried out by the patient

Passive motion          movement of a patientís joints by the person   
                                    who is examining the patient

Abduction                  away from the midline of the body

Adduction                  towards the midline of the body

Dorsiflexion                movement which decreases the angle between the dorsum (superior surface) of the foot and the leg, so that the toes are brought closer to the shin. Simply put it is upward movement of the foot at the ankle joint.

                                    The movement moving in opposite directions is  
            called plantarflexion. 

The same term can be applied to the wrist and hand, with movement of the palm towards the forearm termed palmarflexion.

Eversion                     the movement of the sole of the foot away from 
                                    the median plane (see inversion)

Extension                    straightening of a joint (opposite of flexion or 
                                    bending)

Flexion                        bending (opposite of extension or straightening)

Hyperextension          extreme or excessive extension

Inversion                     the movement of the sole towards the median    plane (same as when an ankle is twisted)

Pronation                   turning of the hand so the palm faces downwards 
                                    or lying face downwards

Supination                 turning of the hand so that the palm faces upwards or lying face upwards (opposite of pronation)

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