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allodynia                 is a pain due to a stimulus which does not   
                                 normally provoke  pain

annulis fibrosis        the highly elastic fibrocartilaginous envelope 
                                 about each intervertebral disc. A tear of this 
                                 membrane and dislodging of the inner cartilage 
                                 leads to extrusion of the nucleus pulposis of the disc

arthritis                   inflammation of a joint

arthroplasty            surgery of a joint to make or increase movement

atrophy                   wasting away with diminution in size

bursa                        small fluid filled sac situated over the bony 
                                 prominence  (usually) and serving to relieve 
                                 friction and pressure

cartilage                  this tissue covers the end of the bones and 
                                 facilitates their gliding  action within the joints

cervical                    pertaining to the neck

      softness of articular cartilage usually the patella

clonus                      spasmodic alteration of muscular contraction and 

              crackling sound heard in certain conditions such as 
                                 the grating sound heard on movement of ends of 

               the dislocation of any part, especially of a bone at 
                                 a joint

dysplasia                  abnormality of development

                is any condition of abnormal development, often 
                                  denoting the degeneration of muscles

effusion                    escape of fluid into a pad

facet joint                 
also known as zygapophysial joints
                                  synovial joints which help support the weight and 
                                  control movement between individual vertebrae 
                                  of the spine

                        formation of an ankylosis, either following injury, 
                                   disease, or surgically produced

idiopathic                  of unknown cause 

                    a band of fibrous tissue that connects bone or 

                       pertaining to the part of the back which extends 
                                   from the lowest ribs down to the upper border of 
                                   the pelvis 

            branch of surgery that deals with bones and joints 
                                   and other related structures

paresthesia               sensation of numbness, prickling or tingling or 
                                   heightened sensitivity

are two short, thick processes, which project 
                                   dorsally, one on either side, from the superior 
                                   part of the vertebral body at the junction of its 
                                   posterior and lateral surfaces. They connect the 
                                   body of the spinal vertebra to the arch

radicular                    pain that is caused by the root of a nerve

a  congenital anomaly causing a separation of 
                                    the articular facets, usually in the lumbar spine, 
                                    symptoms of low back pain and sciatica may 
                                    result. Treatment consists of supports and other 
                                    orthopaedic measures

sacrum                        lower five vertebrae fused together and joined 
                                    with the pelvis

                     joint between the sacrum and pelvic bone and 

spinal fusion operation
   a bone operation which results in 
                                    strengthening of the spinal column by 
                                    obliteration of the joints between some of the 

       defect in a vertebrae between the pedicle and 
                                    the lamina with forward displacement of the 
                                    upper facet and the  vertebrae above

synovium                    the lining of a joint

                        strong fibrous cord or “leader” which connects 
                                    a muscle to the bone which it is designated to 

thoracic                      pertaining to the thorax or chest

the slight continuous contraction of muscle,  
                                    which in skeletal muscles aid in the  
                                    maintenance of posture and in the return of 
                                    blood to the heart


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